Continuity of Care in Children's Mental Health (C3MH)
- General information
- Structure and administration
- Sample norms, reliability, and validity
Author(s)/developer(s): Tobon, J.I. & Reid, G.J.
Date(s) of publication: 2013
Version(s): Original (C3MH-P: Parent Version; C3MH-Y: Youth Version)
Primary: Client satisfaction
Secondary: Program evaluation
Continuity of care
The measure assesses continuity of care in the children's mental health care system. Continuity of care refers to "how a patient experiences care as coherent and linked" (Reid, Haggerty, & McKendry, 2002).
Use(s) of information:
The measure is designed to understand the experiences of families receiving children's mental health services. The C3MH can be used by children's mental health agencies, evaluators and researchers to measure how current services are delivered, and how they can improve. An additional set of modules focuses on continuity between care in the children's mental health system sectors and professionals providing mental health care to children, youth and families (I.e. family physician, pediatrician, psychiatrist, school, child welfare, other agency, private provider). Three optional modules focusing on transition can be completed if the family had specific transition experiences with multiple providers, a change in providers, or discharge.
C3MH-P: Children and adolescents ages 4 to 18.
C3MH-Y: Adolescents ages 14-18.
Additional information to inform measure useOther considerations:
Please note that the youth version of the measure, C3MH-Y, has been piloted and is awaiting further replication with a larger sample size.
Ontario-based programs or initiatives using this measure:
None at this time.
Structure and administration
Method(s) of administration:
Parents and adolescents with experiences receiving children's mental health services.
Number of items:
C3MH-P: 25 core items
C3MH-Y: 19 core items
Transition modules for three situations: 5 items each
Seven cross-sector modules: 13 items each
C3MH-P: Management- collaboration, transitions; Informational- provider knowledge; Relational- interpersonal, consistency;
C3MH-Y: Management- collaboration; Informational- provider knowledge; Relational- interpersonal
Transition modules for both instruments: multiple providers, change in providers, discharge;
Cross-sector modules for 7 other sectors/ professionals: family physician, pediatrician, psychiatrist, school, child welfare, other agency, private provider
5-point scale ranging from 1= Strongly Agree to 5 = Strongly Disagree. Some items have a not applicable option.
Estimated time to administer:
15 minutes for core items; 2 minutes for each additional module
Parents of children (ages 4-18) and youth (ages 14-18) who have had at least 3 face-to-face visits at a CMH agency in the previous 12 months.
Training requirements, scoring and interpretation:
The measure is intended for use by health care providers, administrators of health care agencies and for research and evaluation. Average scores are calculated for the items in each scale using a scoring template.
Sample norms, reliability, and validity
The norms, reliability and validity statistics included in each measure profile are those reported by the author(s) of the measure. It is important to note that altering, adding or removing questions from a measure voids these reported statistics, possibly making the revised tool unreliable and invalid.
Sample for development of norms:
The C3MH-P was developed on a sample of 364 parents whose children had received help for psychosocial problems and were between 4 and 18 years of age (43% female, 57% male; mean age = 12.1). Parents were recruited from 13 children's mental health agencies across Ontario, Canada, from both rural and urban areas. One parent per family participated in the study (91.8% female, 8.2% male; mean age = 43). 86% were mothers, 69% were married or common-law, and 93% self-identified as Caucasian. A sub-set of 30 parents from the larger sample participated in a three-week test-retest reliability study.
The C3MH-Y was piloted on a sample of 57 youth between the ages of 14 and 18 years (75.4% female, 24.6% male; mean age = 15.7).
C3MH-P: Authors report internal consistency alphas for the 5 subscales as .83 for collaboration, .80 for transitions, .89 for provider knowledge, .93 for interpersonal, and .86 for consistency. Three-week test-retest reliability is also reported for the subscales with correlations ranging from.75 to .92.
C3MH-Y: For the 3 subscales, internal consistency alphas were reported by authors as .77 for collaboration, .90 for provider knowledge, and .93 for interpersonal.
Authors report evidence of construct validity to support the factor structures, along with evidence of convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity for both the parent and youth versions.
Cost to use
No copy available from the Centre. Contact author or publisher
Contact authors below.
Contact Information / Ordering Information:
Department of Psychology
Reid Child Health Research Lab
Westminster Hall, Room 319E
Tel: 519-661-2111 ext. 84677
Email: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
None at this time.
Reid, R., Haggerty, J., & McKendry, R. (2002). Defusing the confusion:
Concepts and measures of continuity of healthcare. Ottawa, ON:
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.
Tobon, J.I. (2013). Continuity of Care in Children's Mental Health: Development of a Measure. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.
Tobon, J.I., Reid, G.J., & Goffin, R. (Published online, September, 2013). Continuity of Care in Children's Mental Health: Development of a Measure. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0518-0
Status: Verified and completed
Last updated: 2013-10-09