Follow @CYMH_ON on twitter!
  • Print this page
  • Share this page

Measure profile

Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)

Key information

Author(s)/developer(s): Overall, J.E. & Gorham, D.R.

Permission: Free
Cost details: Free (public domain). Available from the Canadian Mental Health Association - Ontario, Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative. Please see contact information below.

Contact Information / Ordering Information:
Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative
Janet Durbin, Project Director
Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario
180 Dundas Street West, Suite 2301
Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8
Phone: 1-416-535-8501 ext. 6229
E-mail: janet_durbin@camh.net

Downloads:
18-item version
24-item version

General information

Author(s)/developer(s): Overall, J.E. & Gorham, D.R.

Date(s) of publication: 1962, 1967, 1986, 1988

Version(s): Original (BPRS-18; 1962), BPRS-16 (1967), Expanded (BPRS-E; 1986), Children's (BPRS-C; 1986), and Anchored (BPRS-A; 1988)

Domains/Categories:
Primary: General mental health assessment
Secondary: None identified

Construct(s) measured:
Somatic concerns, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, hostility, guilt, elevated mood/mania, grandiosity, suspiciousness/paranoia,. hallucinations, unusual thought content, behaviour, self-neglect, disorientation, affect, motor retardation, distractability, motor hyperactivity.

Purpose/objective(s):
To provide a broad overview of the type and severity of an individuals' current psychiatric symptoms. It is NOT a diagnostic instrument.

Use(s) of information:
This measure can be used to screen patients for various psychiatric illnesses, as an indicator of treatment effectiveness, or as part of a treatment program evaluation.

Population(s) measured:
Children, adolescents, and adults ages 5 and up. BPRS-C is specifically designed for children and adolescents ages 5-18.

Language(s):
Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, French (Canadian and International), German, Hebrew, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.

Additional information to inform measure use

Other considerations:
The Ontario branch of the Canadian Mental Health Association provides copies of this measure on their website.

Ontario-based programs or initiatives using this measure:
None at this time.

Structure and administration

Method(s) of administration:
Clinician-administered interview/observational report. Can also be done using a chart review method. Overall and Gorham (1962) recommend each individual being assessed by two clinicians to increase reliability of results.

Respondent(s):
Clinician/interviewer.

Number of items:
16 for BPRS-16, 18 for BPRS-18, 21 for BPRS-C, and 24 for BPRS-E

Subscales:
For BPRS-E: Thinking Disturbance, Hostile/Suspiciousness, Withdrawal/Retardation, and Anxious/Depression
For BPRS-C: Behavioral Problems, Depression, Thinking Disturbance,
Psychomotor Excitation, Withdrawal-Retardation,
Anxiety, and Organicity

Response format(s)
7-point Likert scale from 1 ("not present") to 7 ("extremely severe")

Estimated time to administer:
30-40 minutes

Respondent qualification(s):
Must be a trained clinician.

Training requirements, scoring and interpretation:
Must be a trained clinician.

Sample norms, reliability, and validity

The norms, reliability and validity statistics included in each measure profile are those reported by the author(s) of the measure. It is important to note that altering, adding or removing questions from a measure voids these reported statistics, possibly making the revised tool unreliable and invalid.

Sample for development of norms:
For the BPRS-C: 48 children from Houston (33 boys and 15 girls) ages 5-18.

Reliability:
For the original version (Overall & Gorham, 1962), the authors reported inter-rater reliabilities of 0.56-0.87. Studies on the various versions of the BPRS have reported alphas of 0.46 to 0.94, inter-rater reliabilities of 0.38 to 0.99, and a test-retest reliability of 0.82. For the BPRS-C, the authors report inter-rater reliabilities of 0.46-0.89 and alphas of 0.69-0.91. Further studies on the BPRS-C have found inter-rater reliabilities of 0.40-0.95 and alphas of 0.57-0.87.

Validity:
Studies on the various versions of the BPRS have found evidence of moderate to extensive concurrent validity, as well as good discriminative validity/ability and minimal convergent validity. The BPRS-C specifically has demonstrated discriminative validity/ability.

Availability

Cost:
Free

Downloads:
18-item version
24-item version


Cost details:
Free (public domain). Available from the Canadian Mental Health Association - Ontario, Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative. Please see contact information below.

Contact Information / Ordering Information:
Community Mental Health Evaluation Initiative
Janet Durbin, Project Director
Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario
180 Dundas Street West, Suite 2301
Toronto, ON M5G 1Z8
Phone: 1-416-535-8501 ext. 6229
E-mail: janet_durbin@camh.net

Online Resource(s):
http://farmacologiaclinica.info/scales/BPRS/
http://www.garfield.library.upenn.edu/classics1979/A1979HZ19700001.pdf


Key Reference(s):
Ball, C.J., & McLaren, P.M. (1995). Comparability of face-to-face and videolink administration of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(6), 958-959.
Bell, M., Milstein, R., Beam-Goulet, J., Lysaker, P., & Cicchetti, D. (1992). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: Reliability, comparability, and predictive validity. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180(11), 723-728.
Dingemans, P., Linszen, D., Lenior, M., & Smeets, R. (1995). Component structure of the expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-E). Psychopharmacology, 122(3), 263-267.
Gale, J., Pfefferbaum, B., Suhr, M. A., & Overall, J. E. (1986). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children: A Reliability study. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 15(4), 341-345.
Guy, W., & ECDEU. (1976). Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
Höschl, C., Kozený, J., & Hanzlícek, L. (1994). [Validity of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale]. [Czech]. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy, 95(11), 527-532.
Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services,Department for Behavioral Health,Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (n.d.). Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Training. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from: http://www.mhmr.ky.gov/Facilities/BPRSTraining.asp?sub25
Lachar, D., Bailey, S. E., Rhoades, H. M., Espadas, A., Aponte, M., Cowan, K. A. et al. (2001a). New subscales for an Anchored version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: Construction, reliability and validity in acute psychiatric admissions. Psychological Assessment, 13(3), 384-395.
Lachar, D., Randle, S. J., Haprer, R. A., Scott-Gurnell, K. C., Lewis, K. R., Santos, C. W. et al. (2001b). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children (BPRS-C): Validity and reliability of an anchored version. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(3), 333-340.
Ligon, J., & Thyer, B. A. (2000). Interrater reliability of the brief psychiatric rating scale used at a community-based inpatient crisis stabilization unit. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(4), 583-587.
Lukoff, D., Liberman, R. P., & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1986). Symptom monitoring in the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12(4), 578-603.
Maß, R., Burmeister, J., & Krausz, M. (1997). Dimensionale Struktur der deutschen Version der Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Der Nervenarzt, 68(3), 239-244.
Morlan, K. K., & Tan, S. Y. (1998). Comparison of the brief psychiatric rating scale and the brief symptom inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54(7), 885-894.
Mouffak, F., Morvan, Y., Bannour, S., Chayet, M., Bourdel, M.-C., Thepaut, G. et al. (2010). Validation de la version française de l'échelle abrégée d'appréciation psychiatrique étendue avec ancrage, BPRS-E(A). L'Encéphale, 36(4), 294-301.
Overall, J. E., & Gorham, D. R. (1962). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799-812.
Overall, J. E., & Pfefferbaum, B. (1982). The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 18, 10-16.
Roncone, R., Ventura, J., Impallomeni, M., Falloon, I. R. H., Morosini, P. L., Chiaravalle, E. et al. (1999). Reliability of an Italian standardized and expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS 4.0) in raters with high vs. low clinical experience. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100(3), 229-236.
Sánchez, R., Ibáñez, M. A., & Pinzón, A. (2005). Análisis factorial y validación de la versión en español de la escala Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale en Colombia. Biomédica, 25(1), 120-128.
Schützwohl, M., Jarosz-Nowak, J., Briscoe, J., Szajowski, K., Kallert, T., & The Eden Study Group. (2003). Inter-rater reliability of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Groningen Social Disabilities Schedule in a European multi-site randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of acute psychiatric day hospitals. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(4), 197-207.
Thomas, A., Donnell, A. J., & Young, T. R. (2004). Factor structure and differential validity of the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Assessment, 11(2), 177-187.
Van der Does, A. J. W., Linszen, D. H., Dingemans, P. M., Nugter, M. A., & Scholte, W. F. (1993). A dimensional and categorical approach to the symptomatology of recent-onset schizophrenia. [Article]. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 181(12), 744-749.
Zhang, M. Y. (1983). Use of the Chinese version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 9, 76-80.
Zuardi, A. W., Loureiro, S. R., Rodrigues, C. R. C., Correa, A. J., & Glock, S. S. (1994). [A study of the reliability, validity and factor structure of a Portuguese translation and adaptation of the modified Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale]. [Portuguese]. Revista da Associação Brasilaira de Psiquiatria - Asociacion Psiquiatrica de la America Latina, 16(2), 63-68.

Status: Verified and completed
Last updated: 2016-02-09

« Search again

Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health

695 Industrial Avenue, Ottawa Ontario, K1G 0Z1
Tel.: 613-737-2297   Fax: 613-738-4894
Email: centre@cheo.on.ca

 

Please note: We do not provide mental health advice, counselling or treatment.
If you, or if someone you know is in crisis right now, please call the Kids Help Phone at 1-800-668-6868.

© 2019 All rights reserved