Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Rating Scale-IV (SNAP-IV)
- General information
- Structure and administration
- Sample norms, reliability, and validity
Author(s)/developer(s): Swanson, J.M.
Date(s) of publication: 1992
Primary: Attention Deficit Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD, ADHD)
Secondary: None identified
ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms.
To assess for the presence of ADHD and ODD symptoms.
Use(s) of information:
This measure may be used to assist in the diagnosis of ADHD or ODD.
Children and adolescents ages 6-18.
Chinese, English, Portuguese (Brazilian), and Spanish.
Additional information to inform measure useOther considerations:
Please note that there appears to be a 90-item version of the SNAP-IV, but that all information presented in this review pertains to the 26-item SNAP-IV.
Please note that the 26-item SNAP-IV is also sometimes referred to as the MTA-SNAP-IV.
Ontario-based programs or initiatives using this measure:
Prescott-Russell Services to Children and Adults: La Bougeotte
Child and Youth Mental Health Evaluation Implementation
Structure and administration
Method(s) of administration:
Teacher or parent report.
Teachers or parents.
Number of items:
Inattention (9 items), hyperactivity/impulsivity (9 items), and oppositional defiant disorder (8 items).
4-point scale from 0 (not at all) to 3 (very often)
Estimated time to administer:
Information not indicated / not available at this time
Training requirements, scoring and interpretation:
Scoring is done manually. Subscale scores are calculated by summing item scores and then dividing the total by the number of items in the subscale (i.e., calculate the average for that subscale). Scoring and interpretation is completed by a healthcare provider.
Sample norms, reliability, and validity
The norms, reliability and validity statistics included in each measure profile are those reported by the author(s) of the measure. It is important to note that altering, adding or removing questions from a measure voids these reported statistics, possibly making the revised tool unreliable and invalid.
Sample for development of norms:
Bussing et al. (2008) standardized the measure on a sample of 1,613 parent reports and 1,205 teacher reports of children from a school district in Florida. The children on whom reports were submitted were 66% female and 34% male, and 70% were Caucasian.
Studies have reported internal consistency reliabilities (alphas) of 0.79-0.97, test-retest reliabilities of 0.61-0.73 (ICCs of 0.60-0.84), and parent-teacher agreement coefficients of 0.43-0.49 (please see Key References for more details).
Studies have reported evidence of discriminative validity, good sensitivity and specificity, minimal concurrent validity, and extensive convergent validity (please see Key References for more details).
Contact Information / Ordering Information:
James M. Swanson
Director - Child Development Center
University of California, Irvine
Child Development Center
19722 MacArthur Blvd.
Mail code 4480
Bussing, R., Fernandez, M., Harwood, M., Wei, H., Garvan, C.W., Eyberg, S.M., & Swanson, J.M. (2008). Parent and teacher SNAP-IV ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Psychometric properties and normative ratings from a school district sample. Assessment, 15(3), 317-328.
Gau, S. S.-F., Lin, C.-H., Hu, F.-C., Shang, C.-Y., Swanson, J.M., Liu, Y.-C., & Liu, S.-K. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale-Teacher form. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(8), 850-861.
Gau, S. S.-F., Shang, C.-Y., Liu, S.-K., Lin, C.-H., Swanson, J.M., Liu, Y.-C., & Tu, C.-L. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale - parent form. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 35-44.
Grañana, N., Richaudeau, A., Gorriti, C.R., O'Flaherty, M., Scotti, M.E., Sixto, L., ... Fejerman, N. (2011). Evaluación de déficit de atención con hiperactividad: La escala SNAP IV adaptada a la Argentina. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 29(5), 344-349.
Jose Angel, A.D., & Serrano, E. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Agreement between clinical impression and SNAP-IV screening tool. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 20(Suppl 1), S121.
Mattos, P., Serra-Pinheiro, M.A., Rohde, L.A., & Pinto, D. (2006). A Brazilian version of the MTA-SNAP-IV for evaluation of symptoms of attention-deficity/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional-defiant disorder. Revista de Psiquiatría do Rio Grande do Sul, 28(3), 290-297.
Swanson, J.M. (1992). School-Based Assessments and Interventions for ADD Students. Irvine, CA: KC Publishing.
Status: Verified and completed
Last updated: 2013-09-13