Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA)
- General information
- Structure and administration
- Sample norms, reliability, and validity
Author(s)/developer(s): Masia, C.L., Klein, R.G., & Liebowitz, M.R.
Date(s) of publication: 1999
Version(s): Clinician-rated and self-report versions (LSAS-CA-SR).
Secondary: None identified
Fear/anxiety related to social situations and avoidance of social situations.
To assess the level of social anxiety and avoidance behaviours in children and adolescents.
Use(s) of information:
This measure may be used to assess social anxiety in children and adolescents, or as a screening tool to help identify children or adolescents who may be in need of further evaluation.
Children and adolescents ages 7 to 18.
Additional information to inform measure useOther considerations:
None at this time.
Ontario-based programs or initiatives using this measure:
None at this time.
Structure and administration
Method(s) of administration:
Self-report or clinician interview.
Child, adolescent, or adult being assessed; interviewer.
Number of items:
Social interaction (12 items) and performance (12 items).
Each question is answered twice: once indicating fear of or anxiety elicited by the action/behaviour indicated by the item, and once indicating avoidance of the action/behaviour in question. For fear/anxiety questions, the response is on a 4-point scale from 0 (none) to 3 (severe). For avoidance questions, the response is on a 4-point scale from 0 (Never - 0%) to 3 (Usually - 67-100%).
Estimated time to administer:
Training requirements, scoring and interpretation:
Scoring is done manually. Higher scores in either fear/anxiety or avoidance categories indicate greater social anxiety. Specific qualifications necessary for scoring and interpretation are not indicated.
Sample norms, reliability, and validity
The norms, reliability and validity statistics included in each measure profile are those reported by the author(s) of the measure. It is important to note that altering, adding or removing questions from a measure voids these reported statistics, possibly making the revised tool unreliable and invalid.
Sample for development of norms:
Measure was developed using a sample of 154 children and adolescents ages 7 to 18. Participants were recruited from three sources: an anxiety clinic in Boston, a high school in suburban New York, and a multisite psychopharmacological clinical trial of social phobia. In terms of ethnicity/race, 85.7% of participants were Caucasian, 5.2% were African American, 3.9% were Hispanic, 0.6% were Asian American, and 4.6% were 'biracial'.
The authors report internal consistency reliabilities (alphas) of 0.83-0.97 and test-retest reliabilities of 0.89-0.94. Further studies have reported alphas of 0.82-0.94.
The authors report evidence of discriminative validity, moderate concurrent and extensive convergent validities, and good sensitivity and specificity. Further studies have reported evidence of discriminative validity, and exemplary concurrent and convergent validities.
Contact Information / Ordering Information:
Dr. Carrie Masia-Warner
Associate Professor of Psychology
William Paterson University
300 Pompton Rd
Wayne, New Jersey
Masia, C.L., Klein, R.G., & Liebowitz, M.R. (1999). The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA).
Masia-Warner, C., Storch, E.A., Pincus, D.B., Klein, R.G., Heimberg, R.G., & Liebowitz, M.R. (2003). The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents: An initial psychometric investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(9), 1076-1084.
Olivares, J., Sánchez-Gárcia, R., & López-Pina, J.A. (2009). The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents. Psicothema, 21(3), 486-491.
Storch, E.A., Masia-Warner, C., Heidgerken, A.D., Fisher, P.H., Pincus, D.B., & Liebowitz, M.R. (2006). Factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 37(1), 25-37.
Status: Verified and completed
Last updated: 2015-06-09